TO SEE IT CLEARER
- From London, General de Gaulle launched his call for resistance to the B.B.C. on June 18, 1940.
- Free France is created by General de Gaulle and represents the External Resistance; the volunteers who joined him in London were incorporated into the armed forces under the banner of the Free French Forces (F.F.L).
(for details, see the section "LES FRANÇAIS LIBRES").
- In France, after the appeal of June 18, small groups of patriots wanting to resist against the invader meet but are not structured and are very compartmentalized. Departmental Resistance Coordination Committees are created (C.C.R)
Several movements are emerging (especially in the South zone: Combat, Franc Tireur, Liberation Sud).
General de Gaulle created the Intelligence Service of Free France in July 1940, with the help of the Intelligence Service mandated by Winston Churchill.
This service will take the name of B.C.R.A (Central Bureau of Intelligence and Action) at the end of 1942. Its main missions are intelligence and sabotage.
In France, Jean Moulin, sent by General de Gaulle, succeeded in smoothing out the differences between the groups in the South zone (Combat, Franc Tireur, Liberation), provided them with financial support and created in October 1942 with the armed groups of these organizations: the Secret Army.
Following this regrouping of the Free French Forces and internal Resistance networks, the French Combatant Forces (F.F.C) were created.
In January 1943, Jean Moulin carried out the complete merger of the Resistance groups in the South zone under the name of the United Resistance Movements (M.U.R); The Secret Army (A.S) is the armed wing of the M.U.R. which also carry out propaganda, intelligence and newspaper publishing activities.
The commitment to the F.F.L ended at the end of July 1943.
In December 1943, the M.U.R. merge with 3 groups from the North zone (Defense of France, Resistance, Lorraine) and become the National Liberation Movement (M.L.N.).
At the end of 1943, at the beginning of 1944, A.S. regroups with the O.R.A. (Organism of Resistance of the Army) (which did not recognize General de Gaulle, but General Giraud as leader), and the FTP (Francs Tireurs Partisans) (of communist obedience) to become the French Interior Forces (FFI).
From November 1941 to December 1942, Roger Warin known as "Wybot" reorganized the Intelligence Service of Free France which became the B.C.R.A .; he was appointed director of the counter-espionage service of the B.C.R.A. by "Passy".
(In November 1944, by order of General de Gaulle, he created the DST (Directorate of Territorial Surveillance) merged in 2008 with the RG (General Intelligence) into DCRI (Central Directorate of Internal Intelligence) and recently into DGSI (General Directorate of Homeland Security.)
In 1943, Colonel Dewavrin, known as Passy, head of the B.C.R.A, sent the "Gallia" mission represented by Henri Gorce known as "Franlin" to France to take charge of the S.R des M.L.N.
This was not done, but, lacking funds and having no radio links, the S.R of the M.L.N collaborated closely with the Gallia network which forwarded its mail to London. The M.L.N S.R then received issuing stations and funds from London. The P1 and P2 agents of the M.L.N. , directed by Jean Gemähling, were approved Gallia RPA and from June 1944, Gallia Kasanga.
In November 1943, the B.C.R.A merged with the intelligence services of General Giraud in Algiers and became the D.G.S.S (General Directorate of Special Services).
In October 1944, the D.G.S.S became D.G.E.R. (General Directorate of Studies and Research) which in December 1945 became the S.D.E.C.E (External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service) then in 1982, the D.G.S.E (General Directorate for External Security) until today.